The reported prevalence of child maltreatment – neglect; physical, emotional and sexual abuse; and exposure to family violence – is at unacceptable levels in Australia. The number of children receiving child protection services (investigation, care and protection orders, and out-of-home care) continues to rise. One in 33 children received child protection services in the past year alone; the majority are repeat clients. Disturbingly, indigenous children are 7 times as likely as non-indigenous children to receive protection services. What is child abuse and neglect and when is a child in need of protection? What are the causes, indicators and impacts of abuse involving children and adolescents? When should children at risk be removed from their parents, and is it possible or even preferable in certain cases to keep vulnerable kids with their families? There is no excuse for child abuse, but are we doing enough to protect children at risk?