Australian imprisonment rates have increased annually for five consecutive years. Why are prison numbers rising, and what are the alternatives to imprisonment? This book examines imprisonment rates and criminal justice reform options. How do the four current prison system justifications – retribution, deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation – stack up? Is the incarceration of offenders deterring them from re-offending and reducing crime rates? What are the human and financial costs of imprisonment, especially for detained young people and Indigenous Australians? How can we work towards more effective rehabilitation, crime reduction and justice reinvestment? Is it possible to unlock the prison problem and set it free?