Tobacco smoking is one of the largest preventable causes of death and disease in Australia. It is associated with an increased risk of a wide range of serious health conditions and is responsible for around 15,000 deaths each year. Although smoking rates have decreased over the past 15 years, 2.6 million adult Australians still smoke daily. Why do so many people persist with such an addictive and deadly habit; what are the ways in which they can quit smoking? The increasing uptake of e-cigarettes is seen by some to help people quit smoking and reduce harm, and by others (including the government) to be an inducement to take up and normalise smoking, particularly by young people. How safe is ‘vaping’ and what are the arguments for and against e-cigarettes? Australia is a world leader in tobacco control, having introduced initiatives such as the banning of advertising, imposing a tobacco excise, and mandating smoke-free environments and plain packaging. Is the fight against Big Tobacco being won? Despite these interventions, why do so many Australians continue to let their health go up in smoke?